Population genetic thesis

Haplogroup M173 , associated with the descendants of the first waves of humans into Europe (often seen as a branch of the Cro-Magnon haplogroup M343 , or R1b ), is widespread in Sicily and indeed across Europe, where many English (including some 70% of Englishmen in southern England) and French share it. Today it is most prevalent (90%) among the Spanish and Irish. M173 originated about 30,000 years ago. In effect, some 80% of western Europeans living today are in this haplogroup. Though the neolithic Proto-Sicanians were probably part of this haplogroup, many Sicilians more likely inherited it from ancestors descended from subsequent foreign conquerors arriving from the North and West --Sicels, Romans, Visigoths, Vandals, Normans, Lombards, Swabians (Germans), Angevins (French) and Spaniards among them -- but possibly from some Greeks as well. (These observations are only intended as generalities.)

Impedance -based single cell analysis systems are commonly known as Coulter counters . They represent a well-established method for counting and sizing virtually any kind of cells and particles. The label-free technology has recently been enhanced by a " lab-on-a-chip " based approach and by applying high frequency alternating current (AC) in the radio frequency range (from 100 kHz to 30 MHz) instead of a static direct current (DC) or low frequency AC field. [31] This patented technology allows a highly accurate cell analysis and provides additional information like membrane capacitance and viability . The relatively small size and robustness allow battery powered on-site use in the field.

Scott makes a big deal about Lenski’s long-term bacterial experiments, but these actually support my thesis. Although a very trivial adaptation happened (optimal growth on a given medium), his bacteria shrank in genome size (the functional genome decreased). Evidently the more rapid growth was largely accomplished through genetic degeneration. Many useful genes not essential in that artificial environment were apparently lost. When transferred to a natural environment, those highly degenerated bacteria would essentially be dead-on-arrival.

We may examine representative incidents by following the geographic route of European settlement, beginning in the New England colonies. There, at first, the Puritans did not regard the Indians they encountered as natural enemies, but rather as potential friends and converts. But their Christianizing efforts showed little success, and their experience with the natives gradually yielded a more hostile view. The Pequot tribe in particular, with its reputation for cruelty and ruthlessness, was feared not only by the colonists but by most other Indians in New England. In the warfare that eventually ensued, caused in part by intertribal rivalries, the Narragansett Indians became actively engaged on the Puritan side.

Population genetic thesis

population genetic thesis

We may examine representative incidents by following the geographic route of European settlement, beginning in the New England colonies. There, at first, the Puritans did not regard the Indians they encountered as natural enemies, but rather as potential friends and converts. But their Christianizing efforts showed little success, and their experience with the natives gradually yielded a more hostile view. The Pequot tribe in particular, with its reputation for cruelty and ruthlessness, was feared not only by the colonists but by most other Indians in New England. In the warfare that eventually ensued, caused in part by intertribal rivalries, the Narragansett Indians became actively engaged on the Puritan side.

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