This report finds that police forces in Calais, particularly the French riot police (Compagnies républicaines de sécurité, CRS), routinely use pepper spray on child and adult migrants while they are sleeping or in other circumstances in which they pose no threat. Police also regularly spray or confiscate sleeping bags, blankets, and clothing, and have sometimes used pepper spray on migrants’ food and water, apparently to press them to leave the area. Such acts violate the prohibition on inhuman and degrading treatment as well as international standards on police conduct, which call for police to use force only when it is unavoidable, and then only with restraint, in proportion to the circumstances, and for a legitimate law enforcement purpose.
The discrimination enforced by the hukou system became particularly onerous in the 1980s after hundreds of millions of migrant workers were forced out of state corporations, co-operatives and other institutions.  Attempts by workers classified as rural to move to urban centers were tightly controlled by the Chinese bureaucracy, which enforced its control by denying access to essential goods and services such as grain rations, housing, and health care,  and by regularly closing down migrant workers' private schools.  The hukou system also enforced pass laws similar to those in South Africa.         Rural workers required six passes to work in provinces other than their own,  and periodic police raids rounded up those without permits, placed them in detention centers, and deported them.  As in South Africa, the restrictions placed on the mobility of migrant workers were pervasive,  and transient workers were forced to live a precarious existence in company dormitories or shanty towns , suffering abusive consequences.  Anita Chan comments further that China's household registration and temporary residence permit system has created a situation analogous to the passbook system in apartheid South Africa, which were designed to regulate the supply of cheap labor.