Lingua is open to submissions, whether data-driven or theoretical, that contribute to our understanding of diverse linguistic constructs and communicative phenomena. Lingua is interested in both theoretical and empirical research problems, not restricted by disciplinary boundaries, which help linguists to develop linguistic theory and to better understand all mechanisms of language as a vehicle for communication. Lingua offers a forum for research on language diversity or specificity, as well as common features across languages that govern communication. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality, scholarly rigor and novel contributions to scholarship are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers accepted for publication.
The issue of U and non-U could have been taken lightheartedly, but at the time many took it very seriously. This was a reflection of the anxieties of the middle class in Britain of the 1950s, recently emerged from post-war austerities . In particular the media used it as a launch pad for many stories, making much more out of it than was first intended. In the meantime, the idea that one might "improve oneself" by adopting the culture and manner of one's "betters", instinctively assented to before World War II , was now greeted with resentment. 
It includes students' goals for the task and their beliefs about the importance and interest of the task. This motivational component essentially concerns students' reasons for doing a task. The study recommends that students with a motivational orientation involving goals of mastery, learning, and challenge, as well as beliefs that the task is interesting and important, will participate in more meta-cognitive activity, more cognitive strategy use, and more effective effort management (., Ames & Archer, 1988; Dweck & Elliott, 1983; Eccles, 1983; Meece, Blumenfeld, & Hoyle, 1988; Nolen, 1988; Paris & Oka, 1986).