The dissension evident in these final issues of 391 reflects the Littérature group's growing disillusionment with Tzara and his program. Despite his initial enchantment with Tzara,[ 26 ] by 1922 Breton had begun to have misgivings about the Romanian's directives for Dada. His nihilistic antics and anti-art proclamations, exhilarating at first, quickly became tiresome for Paris group members who essentially sought more meaningful and productive responses to their discontent. As he started to assert himself and his own program, Breton began to collide with Tzara. Unable to accommodate Dada to their enterprises, it was not long before Breton and the Littérature group denounced Dada and broke away from Tzara. In one issue of Littérature Breton wrote:
Ernst Cassirer, one of the twentieth century's greatest philosophers, presents the results of his lifetime study of man's cultural achievements. An Essay On Man is a vital and concise statement of his philosophy of culture, first formulated in his monumental Philosophy of Symbolic Forms. Drawing upon a wealth of scientific, anthropological, and historical data, Cassirer examines man's efforts to understand himself and to deal with the problems of his universe through the creation and use of symbols. He analyzes the major symbolic forms of human enterprise: Language, Myth, Art, Religion, origins of language, doctrines of aesthetics, Frazer's theory of magic, the religious significance of taboo, the play theory of art and the place of Pythagoreanism in the evolution of science, and examines critically the symbolic implications of philosophic thought from Heraclitus to Kierkegaard and Einstein. An Essay On Man is an original synthesis of contemporary knowledge, a unique interpretation of the intellectual crisis in our time, and a brilliant vindication of man's ability to resolve human problems by the courageous use of his mind.
A sculpture of a crescent standing on the 2,140 meters high mountain 'Freiheit' (German for 'freedom'), in the Alpstein region of the Appenzell alps, eastern Switzerland. The sculpture is lighted during the nights by means of solar panels. The 38-year-old Swiss artist and atheist Christian Meier set the crescent on the peak to start a debate on the meaning of religious symbols - as summit crosses - on mountains. 'Because so many peaks have crosses on them, it struck me as a great idea to put up an equally absurd contrast'. 'Naturally I wanted to provoke in a fun way. But it goes beyond that. The actions of an artist should be food for thought, both visually and in content'